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PRODUCT INRODUCTION

Energy security, the physical availability of supplies to satisfy demand at a given price (1), has become one of the dominant issues in the opening decade of the twenty-first century. As world demand for energy continues to increase, prices will inevitably rise and many people will find themselves facing stark choices with respect to energy-related activities such as transportation, food supplies, and residential heating (2).

 

Meeting a jurisdiction’s energy security needs can be achieved through three steps:R3

Review (an analysis of existing sources of energy, infrastructure, and types of demand),

Reduce (the development of wedges to reduce energy demand), and

Replace (the application of wedges that replace imported energy sources with indigenous ones) (3).

 

India is blessed with abundant solar energy. Solar water heater system is a technically proven successful application for use of this energy. However, the market for the solar water heater is not yet developed fully. This informative handbook on solar water heater is prepared, for the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), to address the concerns of solar water heater system users for different solar water heating applications.


A Solar Water Heating System is a device that uses solar energy to heat water for domestic, commercial, and industrial needs. Heating of water is the most common application of solar energy in the world.

Solar Water Heating System which converts Solar Energy into Thermal Energy and can replace any type of conventional heating system / fuel for thermal application like water heating, air heating etc.

A typical solar water heating system can save up to 1500 units of electricity every year, for every 100 litres per day of solar water heating capacity.

Basic working Principle

The basic principle of a solar hot water heater is that the water passes through a solar collector or solar panels that heat the water. The solar collectors or panels are in direct contact with the sun and this energy is used to heat the water. The water then passes to an insulated storage tank that conserves the heated water for later usage.

There are two variations on this principle: active and passive systems. The active system uses a pump to move the water from the collectors or panels to the storage tank. The passive system has no power source to move the water but moves the water through gravity.
 

SOLAR WORKING PROCESS.jpg

Solar water heating system working vidio

Types of solar water heating systems

Pressururised
solar system

The basic working principle of solar water heating remains the same.

A pressure pump is used to pump cold water from the source into the Solar tank.

This type of water heating system is used when

Heat exchanger system

This type of Solar water heating system is used when the original cold water (from the source) contains chemical contents and is therefore hard water.

Forced circulation system

If the capacity of hot water requirement is more than 4000 upto 100000 LPD, the water requires additional force to push the hot water collected in the solar collector. The DTC (Differential Temperature Controller) senses the inlet and outlet temperature of the water. If the thermal difference is more than 10 0C, the DTC switches on the pump and the hot water in the collector is forced to flow into the storage tank. This system requires continuous supply of electricity for the motor to operate.

Fixed circulation system

This system is used in process industries where in the hot water requirement is between 4000-100000 LPD at a fixed hot water temperature or when the collectors and the tanks are placed at different places. In this system, cold water flows into the collectors and waits till it gets heated up to the set temperature.

Additional system requirements

Following additional system-technology features may help in selection of the solar water heating system with appropriate technology, suitable for the size and site conditions.

1.Pressurised Solar system

The basic working principle of solar water heating remains the same.

A pressure pump is used to pump cold water from the source into the Solar tank.

This type of water heating system is used when

• The level of the overhead tank (The original cold water source) is at low level.

• High pressure hot water flow is required for various uses like shower panels, jet shower, telephone shower.

• The number of hot water points are more than normal.

System for Multi-Storied Buildings

The solar water heating system installed for multi-storied buildings, process industries, apartment complexes, hospitals, hotels works on the same basic principle, but is specifically designed to meet rigorous requirement of such conditions.

 Such installations have multiple hot water outlets at different levels of the building. It is important that all outlets should dispense hot water as soon as the taps are opened, and also minimize the wastage of cold water.

 

To achieve this, a special device called the Electronic Control Unit is installed within the hot water plumbing lines. During the process of heating, if the temperature of the water goes below 30 0C, the Electronic Control Unit (auto temperature controller) switches on the pump immediately. The pump then pumps out the cold water accumulated within the tube and fins, thereby allowing immediate flow of water.

The advantages of this system are

 • Cold water wastage is not there.

• Hot water is readily available on the turn of the tap.

• Electricity is saved because wastage of cold water is minimized, thus saving precious resources.

 

 Heat Exchanger System

This type of Solar water heating system is used when the original cold water (from the source) contains chemical contents and is therefore hard water.

Thermal fluid (Distilled water) is filled through make-up tank to the outer tank shell. In turn, this fluid gets circulated through the solar fins and tubes and goes back into the top of the outer tank. This fluid acts as a heat transfer media and prevents clogging of the copper tubes due to chemical contents in the original water source.

 

The inner tank gets filled with cold water from the original cold water source. Since the inner tank is immersed within the outer tank, the heat gets transferred to the inner tank through the conducted and convection method and the water in the inner tank gets heated up and available for hot water utility.

 

Forced Circulation System

If the capacity of hot water requirement is more than 4000 upto 100000 LPD, the water requires additional force to push the hot water collected in the solar collector. The DTC (Differential Temperature Controller) senses the inlet and outlet temperature of the water. If the thermal difference is more than 10 0C, the DTC switches on the pump and the hot water in the collector is forced to flow into the storage tank. This system requires continuous supply of electricity for the motor to operate.

 

Fixed Circulation System

This system is used in process industries where in the hot water requirement is between 4000-100000 LPD at a fixed hot water temperature or when the collectors and the tanks are placed at different places. In this system, cold water flows into the collectors and waits till it gets heated up to the set temperature.

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